Coats of Arms (Heraldry)
of Slovenian areas and Slovenian ethnic regions
Central region of koroskih princes and ancient Slovenian states came to existence from Great Karantanije (Carinthja). Under the reign of Henry II, who ruled Bavaria and Koroska, the emperor, in Jan. 976, separated Korosko from the rest and raised it to an independent duchy. Into the duchy were placed, according to direct order from the German emperor, various German feudal families, lastly the Eppensteins and Spanheims.
For a short time, there was a property of the Czech king Otokar II; these were made directors of Tirol-goriski counties/shires; and lastly the Hapsburgs. Slovenian, Carinthian princes (Valuk, Borut, Gorazd, Hotimir, Valtunk, Inko, Pribislav, Semika, Stojmir Edgar) ruled independent Carinthia from the beginning, in early middle century (630-820). A little earlier also was established Samova state from year 623 and lasted til year 658.
Description -- Coat of Arms
At first Koroska had a coat of arms with a black panther on white background from the skin of ermine. Of course, this panther does not resemble a panther as described in today's zoos, but it is a [himericna] shape, which is often shown on various coats of arms. From the 1300's on, it is still used til today, on succeeding coats of arms.
It is split into two halves. The first half, on a gold background, are shown three black wolves; on the other half, ona red background, is a white cross bar, these are Austran colors. Three black wolves on a gold background is the old coat of arms of the Hohenstaufs and the duchy [Svabska].
In the history books, arranged in Fugger's handwriting, from 100 years before, which was brought out by Birken in 1668 at Nurnberg as Spiegel der Ehren --etc." In our language == "Mirrors of Glory/Fame". . . . . itd. We read in Book III, Chapter V, page 312 !!!!!! "that the emperor enthroned in 989 his nephew Otona for the duchy Koroska. He brought to this state three [svabski] black wolves on a gold background, which is beside the Austrian shield the Koroski coat of arms."
Also Valvasor asks how to make out questions of how came the svabski coat of arms into the coat of arms of the Koroska duchy. It is based upon two historians: Aventina & Laziusa. Both were busy with the Koroska coat of arms and its colors. Herall H.L. Stroehl writes in his notable work "oester. -Ung.-Wappernrolla," that the source of this coat of arms is not yet clear.
During the second half of the year 1000, after the defeat of the Magyars, there was organized in Carinthia a new regional defense system for all surrounding sides of Great Carinthia, except the Western. Stajerska came into the region known as Carinthian country. The first countryman, Otakar, from Traungance, carries the name of his own main castle Steyrin (Stira) at Anizi. From this came the name of the region or Marko, which began to call itself Steiermark - Stajerska (Marka).
In the year 1180 it was raised to a duchy; to this time it was under the Carinthian duchy. For this reason the first people had the same coat of arms as the old koroski, namely: on a white background (white ermine skin) a black panther (from [soboljevih] skin). The present coat of arms, with various colors, is attributed to the last heraldic Babenberzan, Friderik Bojevitem (December 1246).
Description of Coat of Arms
On a green background, a silver panther with red horns, also the talons are red. Flames shooting from its mouth. In the previous hundred years, they described it so: that flames were shooting from all five openings of the animal, front and back.
Part of Great Carninthia was called the Kranjska region. At Kranjska stood a castle landmark of a count. It was in the hands of various church and civil authorities: such as patriarchs Andeski, Spanheim and Babenberzani. The very last of them, Babenberzanov Frederik Bojeviti, called himself, about 1235, "Lord of Kranjska." Due to him, Kranjska became larger and the property of the Czech king Otokarja II. In the records dated the 7th of [malega srpana] 1275, we find on the king's seal the first coat of arms of the country Kranjska. We have a coat of arms already for 700 years of this Slovenian land!
After the death of the Czech king, the Slovenian lands came under the rule of the Hapsburgs, namely, the famous Rudolf IV. He raised the land of Kranjska in 1364 to a self-governing duchy. As thanks for his help, which emperor Frederik III received, while beseiging Vienna, from gallant Kranjska and Slovenian [Marke], he improved the coat of arms of Kranjska.
Instead of a white (silver) color on the shield, he decreed that from now on it should be the gold of the emperor's color. On the head of the eagle he put the emperor's crown, this is the crown of the Holy Roman empire. On the eagle's breast, instead of the red and white stripe, it was changed to gold and red.
Only in Jan 1836 did emperor Ferdinand, because of new conditions, return to the old colors. The country of Kranjska's people finally awakened. After Jan 1848, the strong struggle of the awakened people increased their equality, which the Slovenians did not, until Jan 1883, permanently win in the Kranjska country's assembly, which became the important autonomous political tribune.
From that time, the Slovenian representatives in Vienna's parliament, requested in Slovenian language, their rights with other Slavonics, as parliamentry opposition, obstructed the government's rule. With the country's autonomy, the Slovenians had political power, as they never had in the later Jugoslavija. This is true, whether or not anyone likes it.
Description of Coat of Arms
On the white (silver) shield is the blue eagle with his open red beak and with red claws. On his breast are stripes of red and white which narrow on both sides into tips, This is used by those who would like to justify the Islamic half moon on the coat of arms of Dravske [banovine] for the moon's quarter. Today the eagle does not have the emperor's crown nor the duke's hat. In the Koledar for Jan 1978 pages 68-73, there is an extensive history of this coat of arms.
Slovenian [Marka] or Region
We find the name Slovenian Marke (region) in the early Middle Ages. The Frankish chronicler Fredegar relates, that at times, when the Bulgars came from Obri, around Jan 630 under the King, chased the people from the Panonian plain into Bavaria. Then, as commanded killed them at Dagobert. Those who were left fled into the Slovenian region ([Vindorium Marchia]). At this time was when prince Valuk was ruling, the first known named Carinthian prince.
However, the expression "marka" = region indicates that the region does not want to be an independent state, as was at that time the Samova state, but bordered the territory of Slovenian kingdom of the Nobleman Vivedor. This was the first documentation and mention of the Slovenian region, even though of course it is not shown later as Slovenian Region.
As historical sources report, the later Slovenian region originated from the former larger Savinian region. This reached from Sotle almost to Ljubljana and from [Solca] mountains to [Kocevaskih] mountains. Only in the 1400's did the Savinija Valley fall under Stajersko. All that was on the right banks of Sava fell into the Slovenian (Marke) region.
In all truth and after our apparent search, the Slovenian region received her remarkable and important coat of arms through the remarkable Hapsburg, Rudolph IV, Founder who allowed himself to be installed in the ancient ceremony in the lordly [polju], his memorial remainded in the important Slovenian hat, which the duke does not remove even for the emperor - gladly, proudly feeling (thinking) this is not done but this is a right.
When he had a new coat of arms engraved, including Slovenian Region's coat of arms, it was not difficult to select a figure/form for the new coat of arms. He took the Slovenian hat for the Slovenian region.
For the next 100 years in ties with the duchy of Kranjsko also is mentioned the Slovenian (Marka) sign. At state ceremonies and country's reverence, at prince's/duke's funerals and also at the emperor's, the presence of their coats of arms and the country's flag was also the Slovenian sign (Marka).
Valvasor reports how the Duchy of Kranjska and Slovenian [Marka] sign acquired almost all inheritable services and dignity, which were usually the emperor's (the country's dignity and management, inherited a higher management, inherited the country's marshal, inherited services, inherited the cathedral, and also other similar of the country's honors) through a century all the emperor's honors/titles the Slovenian coat of arms was always present until the end of the Hapsburg Monarchy.
The Slovenian coat of arms and [marke] (sign) we count with the named known coats of arms. These are, that is to say, coats of arms which with their figures or images tell what is represented; the Slovenian hat on the coat of arms.
Description of Coat of Arms
On the gold shield there is a black Slovenian hat, girded with a red braided cord, which hangs freely or it is ornamentally tied and which ends with two tassels. A complete coat of arms we call a coat of arms, which is on both sides of the shield surrounded with ornamental leaves, has a helmet and crown, above this is the coat of arms [dragotino] or the [okrasek] (the decoration?). Our coat of arms has black gold accompanying and surrounding leaves, above the shield is an open tournamental helmet with a buckle and crown. Above the crown is the coat of arms [dragotina].
This [dragotina] above the coat of arms the Slovenian [Marke] presents an octagon pillow decorated on all eight corners with flowers made of peacock's feathers; right on the pillow is once again shown the Slovenian hat as on the shield. Of this hat and coat of arms there has already been much written in the Koledar DSM for the year 1972, pgs 109-114 and in the Koledar DSM for the year 1976, pgs. 86-90.
In the second half of the year 1000, Istra was one with Furlanijo and Neronsko [marko] tied with Bavarsko in Korosko. In one hundred years comes a tie with Kranjsko since the leader was Kranjski Ulrik born Orlamuende also a lesser count of Istra. In 1077 Istra came together with Kranjsko under the then patriarch. These two lesser shires together with Furlanijo, the emperor Henrik IV granted them to patriarch Sighard because, there was an investitural conflict on the emperor's part.
In the 12th century the nearby patriarchs were mostly land owners of the upper shires. Their land owners and contemporaries began to leave the [oglejske] in [beneske] Istra at the beginning of the 14th century. They called it a county/shire or principality of Istra.
From then the shire of Istra, which reached the middle of the county, fell under the Austrian dukedom, the shire was given for lease or hire and pledged to rich noblemen. It was good that it was merged with Kranjsko and Valvasor describes it as the fifth part of the Kranjska dukedom. (II Book, LXX Cap. str.284 sl.) After the Paris Peace in 1814 the entire peninsula came under Austria where it remained until 1918.
Description of Coat of Arms
On a blue buckle there is the image of a gold goat with red horns and the hoofs are also painted red. This coat of arms is truly for Slovenian Istra. Also the Croats have for the Croation Istra a similar coat of arms. On the mountain ridge which rises above Zagreb, the Croats erected a chapel to the Blessed Mother, queen of Croatia. On the ceiling are images of the coats of arms of Croation towns and markets; in the center are coats of arms of three Croation states: Croatia, Dalmatia, and Slavonia, in addition to the coat of arms of Istra and Bosnia.
Also the Beneska Republic or (Serenissima) had about 28 coats of arms, which presented the Beneska territory and landscape, on the honorable coat of arms of Istra, immediately below the coat of arms of Benetk.
The country around Soca and Vipava did, at first, find itself under the Furlan region, this was one of those areas or border counties, surrounded like firm county defense region of Veliko Karantanijo (Gre. Carinthia). Gorica alone is first named in history in the year 1001, when Emperor Oton III presented to the [oglejski] church one half of the castle and one half to the town, which is called in the Slovenian tongue "Gorica."
Otherwise, as such unity called Slovenian ground, from Predila to the sea and from Nadize to Nanosa none ever had. Sometimes it is called partly in bigger areas (Bovec, Tolmin, Vipava), which means also their surrounding areas. In the year 1077 this region came under the holy power of the patriarch. In the year 1090 Henrik for the first time talks of Gorica; he is the first ruler, who from the first half of the 1200's who turned up the name of the Goriska county.
There were at the beginning barristers and vassals [oglejskih] patriarchs. With this union, which was at that time general practice, they spread and increased their dynastic territory. They increased their possession to Korosko, to Furlan, by Soci, in Kraser in the Slovenian [marki]. So that when the last heir of the Goriski county Lenart (year 1500) all this territory fell under the Habsburgs.